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Newsletter by SAND

2024. 7. 5 Number 30  |  publisher Kyong-hui Choi


South And North Development


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Just as Sand means sand in English, the SAND Research Institute will fill the empty space in inter-Korean relations and North Korea research amid the social focus, and communicate with society with a confident attitude and innovative research results. The SAND Research Institute, comprised of researchers from North and South Korea, will play its role as the main material to build a new 'house of unification' and pave the 'path to unification', just as sand is used as a key material for semiconductors in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.



Young-Hyun Lee

Corporate law firm IRE attorney

the first North Korean defector lawyer

The Establishment of North Korean Defectors' Day: Declaring North Korean Residents as South Korean Citizens

July 14 marks the enactment of the "North Korean Defectors Protection and Settlement Support Act," which is fundamental to the legal status and support policies for North Korean defectors. It is now officially recognized as "North Korean Defectors' Day,"...



Sohn Kwang-joo

Former President of the Korea Hana Foundation

Aspirations for the Inaugural ‘North Korean Defectors Day’ on July 14, 2024

July 8, 2024, marks the 30th anniversary of Kim Il-sung's death, an event that signified the end of an era. Like the unification of East and West Germany in 1990 and the collapse of the Soviet Communist Party in 1991, North Korea had an opportunity...

Current Affairs Analysis


Han Ki-beom

he deputy director of the NIS

Kim Jong-un's Leadership at Risk if Local Industrial Policy Fails

In his January 15 speech to the Supreme People's Assembly, Kim Jong-un called the severe shortage of essential supplies for local residents a "serious political issue." He proposed the "20×10 regional development policy,"aiming to build light industry factories in 20 cities and counties each year...

North Korea in History


Kang In-deok

Former Minister of Unification of the Republic of Korea

North Korea 30 Years After Kim Il-sung's Death: Past, Present, and Future (1)

​- North Korea's Soviet Beginnings: Kim Il-sung's Execution of Stalinism

It's been 30 years since Kim Il-sung's death. For 80 years, we've viewed inter-Korean relations as a "special relationship aimed at reunification." We've examined...



Lee Ju-yeon

Research Fellow at the Asia-Pacific Research Center, Hanyang University

Russia's Determination: Why We Should Be Worried

On June 19, 2024, President Vladimir Putin visited North Korea for a summit with leader Kim Jong-un, his second visit since July 2000. Comparing the two visits, the differences and implications are clear, especially that this visit is driven more by international factors than domestic ones.

NK Focus


Lee Seung-hyun

Research Fellow at SAND Institute

North Korea to Send Workers to Russia? The Reality of Forced Labor for North Korean Overseas Workers

During their June summit, North Korea and Russia agreed to build a bridge over the Tuman River...

Feature Article Series


Jeon Byung-kil

Senior Consultant of YESInnovation former of Secretary General of UniKorea Foundation

Marketing In North Korea (4)

- Cosmetics Rivalry, 'Pomhyanggi' Vs 'Unhasu'

Defectors' Podium


Kim Hyuk

Senior Researcher at the Korea Rural Community Corporation's Research Institute

The Limits of North Korea’s Policy to Encourage Youth Residency in Rural Areas Amid Exodus

Despite Kim Jong-un's efforts through various agricultural reform policies...

In the early 1900s, during the Russo-Japanese War, Japan built the Honor Line between Seoul and Sinuiju in North Pyongan Province. A station was built at the point connecting Dandong, China, to the Korean Peninsula across the Yalu River and named Sinuiju Station. With the opening of the railroad station, the Sinuihi area experienced rapid growth. Trade developed, government offices and businesses moved in, and schools were established.  Sinuiju Station served as a stopover point between the peninsula and mainland China.

In the late 1930s, a hydroelectric power plant was built on the banks of the Yalu River in Sakju, North Pyongan Province, near Sinuiju. An industrial zone was established around Sinuiju using electricity from the plant. At the time, the main reason for building the plant was...


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